DNA Analysis and proofs
 I1-M253, I1-DF29, & I1d- L22

Family Tree DNA analysis by Elroy Christenson

Curiosity and need for confirmation brought me to taking the DNA test through familytreeDNA.com in the first place.  I had several lines that had marginal sources and perhaps fabricated lineage from other researchers that I hoped to refute or change. I was looking for other researchers that were following some of the lines with the hopes that they could give me clues as to where my research should be directed.  The DNA testing I thought of as a possible gimmick but a fun exercise that could reap some potential benefit.  It is painless but enlightening in unexpected ways. The results of DNA analysis of my particular haplogroup have verified some of my original historical research back 7 to 10 generations of several lines.  I am hoping to have all the lines verified but this researching technique is new and growing in complexity and interest. 

Some of the first contacts with DNA matches were with people who had done very little in historical research and were hoping for a quick information on their own families without offering anything in return.  Sometimes they had only researched their own immediate families.  A few have had an adoption in their background which presented a major dead end.  This is not unlike traditional genealogy research.  I share my research freely rather than putting it on a commercial genealogy site.  However, much of my work has ended up on these site because others have used that for their own families.  I have no real problem with that because much of what I have used has been developed by other researchers with whom I have corresponded and conferred. I only ask that my web pages be given credit as the source.  I would also request that DNA researchers at least identify who they are and give some background of their ancestors. 

We know that Homo sapiens first settled in Europe between 40,000 and 35,000 YBP probably during a particularly warm spell but forced back out after the glaciers returned between 20,000 - 16,000 YBP. [Carpelan].  The I1 group is said to have been the first group of people to arrive in northern Scandinavia.  My DNA was first analyzed to the particular haplogroup of I1-M253.  The I1-M253 is one of the oldest lines in Europe going back, according to present theories, to 3,470 to 5,070 years.  The originating line of  I-M170 seems to come into Europe about 10,000 BCE or 15,000 BCE.  The I-M253 springs from this with its mutation about 1000 to 2000 years before some of the other groups and actually may go back to only 8 male and female pairs and their offspring. This first group of settlers are known now by familytreeDNA as "Hunter-Gatherers".  Initially they were identified by country names but that to me was very wrong since no countries existed at that time.  There are still debates among DNA researchers as how this puzzle goes together.  One of the first changes of the DNA was a mutation that put this at I1-P109 at about 3,000 to 4,000 years old. The present theory is that I-M253 was dispersed from Denmark and I-P109 in particular is associated with the southern Denmark Scandinavians.  [wikipedia 2015] Whereas the L22+ "is the main Nordic subclade. It is also very common in Britain, especially on the east coast where the Vikings settled most heavily, in the Low Countries and Normandy (also doubtlessly the heritage of the Danish Viking), as well as in Poland and Russia (Swedish Vikings)." ["Haplogroup I1" eupedia.com 2016] The I haplogroup was much more dominate in the ancient skeletal remains in Denmark (up to 13%) and was theoretically overwhelmed by new emigrate strains from other areas ("I" group now about 2.5%). It may have been the dominate "ancient Southern Scandinavian type." [Hofreiter] It is still more frequent in Finnish populations than any other country in Europe. Other groups, such as R1B1, frequently associated with the Germanic tribes, comes in later and through other migratory routes.  The I1 haplogroup is the most common in northern Europe and is found in about 35% of the male population of Scandinavia and Finland.  It was present in Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherers times along side G2a2b group from Western Hungary.  Ken Nordtveldt's  theories on DNA inheritance spreads back to humanoid beginnings and lays out an interesting history here used in the topic of "I1" on familytreedna.com. [Nordtveldt 2010] It has spread to other regions through settlements and invasions and shows up in much small numbers in Germany, England, Scotland, Ireland, Russia and France.  Some of the DNA spread in Britain through the Anglo-Saxon and Jute invasions after the fall of the Roman empire.  In reality the Saxons came from the southern end of the Jutland peninsula, Germany and Holland whereas the Jutes came from the northern end and Angles from the middle. These tribes have often been broadly called Germanic but were a true mixture obviously containing a good deal of Scandinavian DNA.  See the map on haplogroup I1 at the this web site which also has much other information. ["I1 DNA"  Eupedia.com]

David Widerberg Howden of the Norway group laid out the time sequence for the different haplogroups. [Howden 10/13/2016]
  • DF29: Is dated around 4700 Time to most recent ancestor.
  • CTS6364: Is dated around 4200 Time to most recent ancestor.
  • L22: Is dated around 4100 Time to most recent ancestor.
  • P109: Is dated around 3400 Time to most recent ancestor.

Denmark in 1500
digital copy owned by Elroy Christenson

Ii map
This map shows the dominate regions for I1-M253.

home of I-l22
Family Tree DNA origin of I1d-L22 haplogroup.
[familytreedna.com, 2016]

My own DNA was first analyzed as I1-M253 DNA and now confirmed I1-L22 is also, according to the familyfinder/myOrigins autosomal analysis is 50% Hunter/Gatherer, 40% Farmer, 10% Metal Age Invader. This seems to be most easily explained by some connection to the early nomadic tribes across the ice sheets - very unexpected. My own analysis presently shows a surprising 1-2% connection to East Asia and Northern Siberia.  Although my own ancestors may not come from the Tarim basin, just north of Tibet, this discovery adds historical weight to the present theory of migration.  This group is also known as "ultra Norse" by Professor Ken Nordvedt, one of the early scientists of DNA. Some others have titled this as "Continental/Scandinavian". I suspect this is intended to show the extent of the spread of this early group into England, Ireland, Scotland, Germany and France. It gradually is overwhelmed by other more recent subclads such as P109.

We don't really have a firm date for the when humans moved north but the receding glaciers and known hunting of woolly mammoths gives many clues.  The original hut shown here was in Mezhyrich, Ukraine about 15,000 years ago. It is based on the discoveries of some 70 such huts from mammoth bones and tusks in Siberia which had probably also been covered with hides. 
"Significant climate and habitat changes across Europe, Eurasia and the Americas appear to have preceded the large-scale extinction of megafauna like the woolly mammoth about 15,000 to 11,000 years ago, according to research that has gleaned evidence of environmental conditions directly from old animal bones." [Wallace. Cosmos, 19 Apr 2017]
              house   Combarles mammoth
"Mammoth House" as shown at the "Frozon Woolly Mammoth Yuka Exhibit" in Yokoyama, Japan in Summer 2013. This replica was made for the exhibit with real mammoth fossils (bones and tusks)."[Nadaro 2013 - wikepedia.common.com]  The drawing is of an engraving from the cave of Les Combarelles, France in the Dordorgne river area about 12,000 BCE.   Drawings done about 1902 by Louis Capitan and Henri Breuil.  Having visited several of the caves in the area I can testify as to how easy it was to overlook these engravings.  [Les Combarelles]
  The Tarim mummies of northwestern China were looted for centuries but 1st scientifically investigated in 1910 but dates back to about 2000 B.C.E to 300 B.C.E.  These 4000 year old people are known today as the Xiaohe people.  The excavations of 330 tombs is unprecedented in age, size and scope.  Because this area is one of the driest areas of the world the mummies are very well preserved. The earliest discovered mummies frequently have red hair, Caucasian features, and tattoos. Later dated mummies are more Mongolian in origin.  They were buried with flutes, weapons, woolens, the first known trousers, woven plaid clothing and boat shaped coffins.  They were the first group that seems to have domesticated horses which made their nomadic journeys cover vast distances and buried their horses with them.  DNA  analysis so far seems to confirm a mix of DNA from Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean, India and China.  Theories so far identify this Tarim river area as a cross-roads of traders that existed for several hundred, perhaps thousands of years. It is located presently in the high desert created by the Himalayan mountains of Tibet with the Tarim river fed now only by the few melting glaciers. It probably was a major waterhole along the Silk Road that had been followed by Marco Polo. The residents here had farmed grains and developed a cultural ceremony for burials.  The inhabitants were finally forced out by the ever encroaching desert and changing climate. [ed. Time-Life1993] [Wong 2008]

beauty of Xiaoho   tian-chen-mummy-close-up-of-head1.jpg
The Beauty of Xiaohe and the Tian Chen mummy.
The "Beauty of Xiaohe" seems to have died of lung problems at about the age of 40-45
 caused largely by breathing in dust particles.

The problem with the Caucasian featured Xiaohe people is that it largely deflates the theory that China developed a culture on its own without Western European influence.  The Chinese theory had been based on the Uighur people of modern Mongolia whose kingdom collapsed around 842.  The Uighur were late comers to that region according to these discoveries.  [ed. Time-Life]
As gory as these photos I still find them fascinating and I can't say that either of these individuals resemble any of my relatives except for the receding hairline but I wouldn't be opposed to them being in my family line  This helps to explain my own 1% northeast Asian connection as well as the 4% Finnish/Northern Siberia.  My wife wishes I had a more recent picture of my family.

                    family Finland 1936
Sami family in Finland, 1936
[Wikimedia commons]

I also find it interesting that the Saami/Sami people herded reindeer across the tundra and lived a nomadic lifestyle in much the same manner as the Inuit and American Indians.  According to some DNA researchers there seems to be more of a DNA relationship between the Inuit and the Basque people than to the plains Indians or the French. It seems from recent theories that the Saami would have had to entered the Scandinavian peninsula after about 2000BCE which would make them late comers compared with the I1 haplogroup.

Sami herders

Saami herders of 1900 in northern Norway.

According to researchers, the I1 group were probably the hunter-gatherers more akin to the Samis and Finns than other groups that came in from the south bringing agriculture to Scandinavia. The I1 group is further broken down into many subclad.  My own I1-L22 is listed as Nordic.  By the Viking Group I'm listed in the middle with IM253.  By the Norman Group I'm filtered to be I1_L22+Z2338+ P109+. Although I tested for P109 it was proved negative. The P109 is the main Scandinavian subclad that shows up with the Danish Viking settlements in England, Scotland, Ireland, Normandy coast of France, and the Isle of Man among others.  This particular variation was a several hundred year later version than the L22.  Even still the L22, according to some researchers, shows up most dominated in the area of southern Jutland, Denmark. This was the origin of some of the settlers of northeastern England.  I seem to be related to half of Europe including people in the countries of Russia, the Baltics, Spain, and Turkey. It has now been confirmed from nine skeletons in eastern  England that "present day English owe about a third of their ancestry to the Anglo-Saxons" and I would also add the Jutes, who came in at the same time about 5th century AD. [Schiffels, "Iron Age... genomes.."19 Jan 2016  /  Rincon, BBC News 19 Jan 2016]

So far I have confirmation that my line of historical records go back about 20 generations to at least "Old Gorm"King of Denmark"(r900-940), "the obdurant heathen". Previously I couldn't get back further than my oldest direct line male ancester Jeppe Poulsen of Thisted, Denmark(b. 1658). With the help of Kent Christoffersen my more recently discovered connection to "Skipper Clement" Andersen (b.1485) Denmark "pirate" are accurate. Because his family connects with nobility it has Danish roots that go back in historical records to about 1022 through the records of the Roskilde Cathedral. These records are based on the early writings of an unknown munk of the Chronicon Roskildense, writings of  Saxo "Grammanticus" and Snorre Sturleson's Icelandic sagas of ancient Scandinavia. These records have been compared and argued about in the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy which I use liberally.  These records also are mixed with the history of Norway through marriage records and immigration back and forth between Denmark, Norway and Sweden.  Of course, because of the  invasions and settlements of the Danes into the British Isles, there are connections to Scotland, Ireland, Yorkshire as well as Normandy France..

Snorre Sturleson
Snorre Sturleson in Trondheim, Norway
photo Elroy Christenson 2016

My record also is accurate back through Northern Ireland to Thomas Spann of Cheshire, England in 1560.  Some other lines may also prove to be true but so far there is no correspondence with anyone from other deep lines.  Thomas Terry of Guisborough, North Reading, Yorkshire, England and Clyde family originating probably in Scotland might be one of the reasons that my mother's line also has Scandinavian roots.  Yorkshire, in particular, was one of the first places that Danes settled as far back as 200 CE, which would be pre-Viking era.

Quite naturally the oldest records are associated with nobility or wealthy families.   I have now connected to royalty in my research which has pushed this research back beyond 900 CE.  Often royal genealogies were invented to give credibility to their claim to the throne.  Many early records can't be trusted and many modern researchers have appropriated family lines that they want, not that they can prove.  The bulk of my families were farmers.  They lived for several hundred years on the Jutland peninsula of Denmark and another group on farms for several hundred years in Hedmark and Oppland, Norway.  They likewise were farmers when they came to the United States from Norway, Denmark, England, Ireland, and Scotland.  At that time they may have been true believers in some protestant faith wanting to convert others to the faith or just trying to find a piece of land that they could plow into a livelihood for their families without having to pay a lord for the privilege. 

Many of the families that are listed here were serfs or treated like serfs. However, records for the Kråbøl in Oppland and Bjornstad farm and the Stor-Ree farm in Hedmark lists several families that lived there for a couple of hundred years each.  At this point I have few historical connections to the royal families of Norway, some names are similar to the royal families such as Eystein, Ragnild, Gulbrand, and of course, Olaf.  These could simply be honorific names not family names.  I do have DNA matches that state that my families have been in northern Europe for at least 5000 years.  I recently have wondered why I have no DNA related to the present king of Norway but I do have some DNA similarities to the many of the early Swedish kings.  Historically this makes sense because the present king of Norway (R1b) comes from a royal line out of Germany and Bavaria.  Whereas, seven Swedish kings between 1239-1380 were (I1).  Probably because of intermarriages, most of the Kings of France, Austria, Russia, and England are (R1b). [Haplogroups of European Kings and Queens - Eupedia.com]

Another surprise was the number of Finnish DNA matches I have.  None of the folks I have contacted can make any historical connection to my records but one researcher had records that went back to Sweden.  Skane, the southern most state of Sweden, was long a territory of Denmark. This country or territory was used as a place of refuge by Norwegian and Danish royalty during times of crisis.  It was used by various generations of aristocrats and power brokers to escape a violent turn over of regimes.  However, most recently my Finnish connection is also listed as Northern Siberia. Another interesting turn is that some of my Scandinavian connections are through my mother's side who were predominately Scottish, English and Irish with no historical Scandinavian root. My sister, according the latest version, is more Scandinavian than I am.  I attribute this to MTDNA which tests the mother's mother line. DNA researchers contend that virtually everyone from modern England has Scandinavian DNA.  My wife has no verified historical Scandinavian connection but her brother and mother's DNA are 26% Scandinavian. Their history is largely Scottish, German and Irish. I believe this history gives credibility to the Scandinavian settlements in the British isles and helps to verify Cheryl's connection to the Danish king, Old Gorm with whom I also recently discovered is one of my own grandfathers.   (b.c835).


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